Animalities: Hunting for Herring


>>THANK YOU FOR COMING. ANOTHER HAND PLEASE FOR ADRIAN LOUIE FROM THE HEALING ARTS PROGRAM AT TUCSON MEDICAL CENTER AND SPECIAL THANKS TO THE — PROGRAM COORDINATOR THERE, LAUREN ROBB WHO WAS — BRO US ALL OF THESE MUSICAL PRELUDES DURING THE SERIES. MY NAME IS JOHN PAUL JONES, DON BENNETT MOON DEAN OF THE COL OF SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES AND A DELIGHT TO WELCOME ALL OF YOU UH TO THE THIRD OF FOUR OF OUR LECTURES ON AND IF YOU — IF THIS IS BY CHANCE YOUR FIRST VISIT TO THE SERIES, THEN I CAN GUESS FROM THE TOPIC THAT YOU ARE A CAT LOVER. THE TALK IS GOING TO BE STYLISTICALLY A LITTLE DIFFERENT FROM THE OTHER TWO TALKS. BUT WHAT THEY ALL HAVE IN COMMON SO FAR IS TO INFORM US THAT ANIMALS DON’T JUST INFLECT OUR SOCIAL LIVES BUT ACTUALLY PRODUCE OUR SOCIAL STRUCTURES. IT IS — IT IS A PLEASURE MINE TO GIVE THANKS TO ALL THE PEOPLE WHO HAVE CONTRIBUTED FINANCIALLY TO THE SUCCESS OF THIS SERIES, THE FIRST, I WOULD LIKE TO THANK OUR TITLE SPONSORS, HOLUALOA COMPANIES. MIKE AND BETH KASSER. THEY DO SO MUCH FOR SUPPORTING CULTURE IN DOWNTOWN TUCSON AND IT’S — FABULOUS THAT THEY’RE IN TUCSON AND NOT IN HAWAII. SBS ADVISORY BOARD MEMBERS, KEN AND LINDA ROBIN AND SUPPORTING SPONSOR, AZPM AS WELL AS OUR GREAT COMMUNITY SPONS VIVI AND ADIB SABBAGH, ANN ELLISON AND BARBARA STARRETT, AND PARK TUCSON, AND THIS FABULOUS FOX THEATER. SO, THANK EVERYONE FOR YOUR SUPPORT. OUR SPEAKER TONIGHT IS HAWTHORNE DEMING, SHE IS A PROFESSOR OF CREATIVE WRITING IN THE DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH IN THE COLLEGE OF SBS, AND SHE IS ALSO THE CHAIR OF ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIAL JUSTICE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA. SHE WRITES EVOCATIVE AND REALLY DAZZLING LANGUAGE THAT ENCOURAGES US TO TRAVERSE AND RETHINK THE BOUNDARIES BETWEEN CATEGORIES LIKE SCIENCE AND AND NATURE AND CULTURE, AND THE HUMAN AND THE NONHUMAN. AND, AND SOME 12 BOOKS, SHE HAS DEMONSTRATED HER FACILITY WITH GENRES BOTH POETRY AND THE ESSAY MY FAVORITE AMONG THEM IS THE BOOK, “ZOOLOGIES” ON ANIMALS AND THE HUMAN SPIRIT FROM 2014. SHE TACKLES ALL KIND OF ANIMALS. DOGS AND CATS. BUT ALSO, RABBITS ON MARS. IN THAT BOOK. AND, THE BOOK ITSELF IS SOMETHING OF AN INSPIRATION FOR THIS SERIES. AND I WANT TO THANK HER FOR THAT BECAUSE, I STARTED THINKING ABOUT ANIMALS AS A TOPIC ONCE I GOT MY HAND ON THAT BOOK. AND, YOU CAN GET YOUR HAND ON THAT BOOK AS THEY SAY IN BETTER YOU KNOW THE BOOKSTORE IS GOOD BECAUSE THE BOOK IS THERE. SHE HAS LITERALLY HUNDREDS OF PRESENTATIONS, RECITALS AND ON AT, AT VARIOUS PLACES THE WORLD. PUBLICATIONS AND LITERARY MAGAZINES AND JOURNALS, REPRINTS AND ANTHOLOGIES AND MEDIA AP AND YOU DON’T GET TO BE A REGENTS PROFESSOR AT UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA WITHOUT WINNING SOME AWARD. AND IN HER CASE, AMONG MANY, ARE THE WALT WHITMAN AWARD FROM THE AMERICAN, ACADEMY OF AMERICAN POET THE BEAR AWARD FOR SCIENCE A PUSHCART PRIZE. AND A JOHN SIMON GUGGENHEIM FELLOWSHIP. PLEASE JOIN ME IN GIVING A WARM WELCOME TO ALISON HAWTHORNE DEMING.>>Alison Hawthorne Deming: THA. THANK YOU SO MUCH, J.P., THANK YOU ALL FOR COMING. I AM THRILLED TO BE PART OF THIS SERIES. WHEN I WAS WORKING ON MY BOOK, “ZOOLOGIES,” I WANTED TO EXP HOW IMPORTANT ANIMALS HAD BEEN THROUGHOUT HUMAN HISTORY. THEY HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO US IN TERMS OF FOOD, CLOTHING, SHELTER ART, RELIGION, MYTHOLOGY. AND THAT CONNECTION IS EASY TO READ, IT IS EASY TO FEEL HOW DEEP AND PROFOUND IT IS WHEN WE LOOK AT CHARISMATIC ANIMALS, LIKE THE BISON. AND THE DOG. AS WE HAVE IN THE LAST TWO WEEKS. BUT HERRING? # WELL, I HOPE BY THE END OF THIS EVENING, THAT YOU HAVE, WILL HAVE OPENED A SPACE IN YOUR HEART FOR THIS HUMBLE FISH OF THE NORTHERN WATERS. AND IT IS IMPORTANT — IMPORTANCE TO HUMAN CULTURES ON BOTH SIDE OF THE ATLANTIC. SO, HERE IS A HERRING. I’M GOING TO SPEAK ABOUT THE NORTH ATLANTIC HERRING, ARE PROBABLY 200 SPECIES OF HERRING IN THE WOR IT IS A VERY, VERY ABUNDANT IN FACT, IT IS ONE OF THE FEW SPECIES WHERE WE CAN HAVE EXPERIENCE OF ABUNDANCE IN THIS AGE OF DIMINISHMENT AND WHEN THINK ABOUT THE ANIMAL WORLD. LINNAEUS, THE HERRING, COPIOSISSIMUS PISCIS, THE MOST ABUNDANT FISH. THIS GLOBAL MAP SHOWS THE TERRITORY FOR THE NORTHERN ATLANTIC, YOU CAN SEE THEY LIKE THE EASTERN SHORE BOARD, BUT GOING UP TOWARDS THE CANADIAN MARITIMES, NEWFOUNDLAND, GREAT BRITAIN, AND SCANDINAVIAN THIS IS A REALLY IMP FACTOR ABOUT THE LIFE OF THE HERRING THAT IT LOVES COLD AND IT ALSO THOUGH IS EXTREMELY ADAPTIVE AND RESILIENT. SO THE HERRING CAN BREED IN SPRING OR IN THE FALL. IT CAN APPARENTLY ADAPT TO HIGHLY SALINE WATER HAS IT HAS IN THE BALTIC SEA. SO IT IS REALLY QUITE A REMARKABLE CREATURE. AND OF LEAST CONCERN TO CONSERVATION BIOLOGISTS, THANKFULLY. IT IS NOT WITHOUT CONCERNS OF COURSE, AS YOU WILL SEE. SO HERE IS A HERRING, RESTING IN ITS BED OF ICE, HAPPY LOCATION FOR IT. ALTHOUGH THIS ISN’T THE LIVE ONE. THAT’S NOT SO HAPPY. HERRING HAVE HAD A LOT OF NICKNAMES OVER TIME, IN SCOTLAND, THEY HAVE BEEN CALLED THE SILVER DARLINGS. IN GREAT BRITAIN, THE SILVER OF THE SEA. IN GREAT BRITAIN ALSO THEY WERE CALLED, CALLED THE POTATO OF MIDDLE AGES. THEY HAVE BEEN FOUND IN VIKING MIDDENS, ROMAN MIDDENS, THEY HELPED TO FUEL AND FEED THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. AS THE STAPLE FOOD FOR COAL MINERS AND MILL WORKERS. THEY EVEN HELPED TO SUPPORT ENSLAVED AFRICANS WORKING IN SOUTHERN PLANTATIONS IN UNITED STATES. THERE IS A, AN ACCOUNT FRANCIS FREDRIC OF HIS REPORTING THAT DURING THE WINTER MONTHS HE WAS GIVEN ONE SALT HERRING IN THE MORNING. WHICH, OF COURSE, HELPED AS A PROTEIN SOURCE TO GET PEOPLE THROUGH THE GRUESOME LABOR. I’M GOING TO FOCUS ON THIS ISLAND OFF THE EASTERN COAST OF CANADA. GRAND MANAN ISLAND, AND THIS IS A PLACE I GREW UP IN CONNECTICUT. MY FAMILY WAS LOOKING FOR AN OUT-OF-THE-WAY VACATION PLACE THAT DIDN’T FEEL LIKE A VACATION PLACE, A WORKING PLACE. THEY READ AN ARTICLE ABOUT THE ISLAND OFF THE COAST OF NEWBRUNSWICK, GRAND MANAN ISLAND, 10 MILES WIDE, 20 MILES LONG, 2,500, YEAR-ROUND RESIDENTS, STABLE POPULATION FOR THE PAST 200 YEARS. AS FAR AS WE KNOW, THERE WERE NOT PERMANENT RESIDENCES FOR NATIVE PEOPLE, ALTHOUGH WE KNOW THAT PASSAMAQUODDY PEOPLE CAME OVER FROM MAINE AND NEW IN CANOES FOR MANY HUNDRED OF YEARS MAYBE LONGER. THEY HAD SEASONAL ENCAMPMENTS ON THE ISLAND WHERE THEY WOULD HUNT FOR SHELLFISH, DRY THEM AND TACK THEM BACK TO THE MAINLAND. BUT THE WATERS ARE PRETTY RUGGED UP THERE. AND, THEREFORE, THIS IS NOT THE MOST HOSPITABLE PLACE IN THE WORLD TO BE PADDLING IN A DUGOU CANOE ACROSS THE OPEN SEA. IT IS ALSO EXTREMELY RUGGED. THE WESTERN COAST WHICH IS IS FACING THE MAINLAND IS, IS VERY HIGH, STEEP, BASALTIC THERE ISN’T A PLACE FOR SAFE MOOREAGE OVER THERE. THE ISLAND WAS SETTLED WITH PERMANENT RESIDENTS IN THE 1700s BY LOYALISTS DURING THE AMERICAN REVOL MANY OF THESE PEOPLE LOST THEIR HOMES, OR WERE EXILED AT THE TI IF THEY REMAINED LOYAL TO THE CROWN. SO, AROUND 30,000 EMIGREES NEW ENGLAND WHO CAME TO THE MARITIME PROVINCES AT THE TIM IT ALSO IS APPARENT FROM SOME MATERIALS I READ YOU COULD ACTUALLY BE VOTED ON TO HISS ISLAND. SOMETIMES IN POOR COMMUNITIES ON THE MAINLAND, IF SOMEONE COULDN’T PAY THEIR BILLS OR MIGHT BE A PETTY THIEF OR BE DIFFERENT IN SOME WAY THAT THE TOWN FOUND UNACCEPTA PEOPLE COULD ACTUALLY BE VOTED OFF AND WERE SOMETIMES EXILED GRAND MANAN ISLAND WHERE THEY WERE OUT OF THE WAY. THIS MAY ACCOUNT FOR THE FIERCE AND INDEPENDENT SPIRIT THAT CONTINUES TO THIS DAY ON GR MANAN ISLAND. SO MY CREDENTIALS FOR THIS TALK, EVERYBODY SAYS, HERRING, WHY ARE YOU SO INTERESTED IN HERRING? HERE ARE MY CRE I STARTED GOING TO THIS ISLA WHEN I WAS 9 YEARS OLD. WITH MY FAMILY. THIS IS A PHOTOGRAPH OF ME WITH MY PARENTS. AND YOU WILL NOTE THAT I AM CLUTCHING TO MY BELOVED FATHER WITH ONE ARM. BUT WITH THE OTHER, I AM HOLDING MY TRUSTY BROWNIE HAWKEYE CAMERA. VERY IMPORTANT THE BEGINNING OF MY CAREER AS DOCUMENTARIAN, THE OTHER PHOTO, THE COTTAGE WE BOUGHT FOR PRACTICALLY NOTHING, A DERELICT, RUNDOWN COTTAGE NO ONE LIVED IN FOR QUITE SOME TIME. BUILT IN 1864 BY A MAN BY THE NAME OF JAMES SMITH, A LOCAL HE HAD BUILT IT AS MANY OF HOMES AT THAT TIME WERE BUILT, HARVESTING TIMBERS OFF OF HIS LAND. MILLING THE TIMBERS. STONES OUT OF THE FOR THIS WAS A ROUGH BUILT HOME, NO FANCY CAPE COD OR HAMPTONS RESIDENCE UP IT HAD NO FLUSH TOILET. IT HAD AN OUTHOUSE. IT’S IMPROVED A LITTLE BIT OVER THE YEARS. BUT THIS HOUSE WAS IN THE JAMES SMITH FAMILY FROM 1864 UNTIL IT CAME INTO OUR FAMILY IN 1957. WHERE IT HAS REMAINED. THIS ISLAND REALLY I THINK ME TO A LIFELONG INTEREST IN HOW DEEPLY INTERWOVEN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NATURE AND CULTURE IS. THAT IT IS UTTERLY INEX-TRICK INEXTRICABLE,BECAUSE PEOPLE LIVA YOU ARE VERY AWARE OF THAT WELL HERE IS ONE OF MY VERY FIRST PHOTOS WITH MY TRUSTY BROWNIE HAWKEYE CAMERA COM WITH ALL OF THE WRINKLES IT HAS AMASSED IN THE SUBSEQUENT HALF CENTURY PLUS. THIS IS A PHOTOGRAPH OF A FISHERMAN SEINING A WEIR, YOU WILL HEAR A LOT ABOUT HERRING WEIRS BOY THE END OF THE EVENING. THIS WEIR IS CALLED THE MYSTERY. ALL THE WEIRS HAVE NAMES. ISLANDERS LOOK TO, THEY HAVE THIS WRY SENSE OF HUMOR WHICH I THINK HELPS EVERYBODY GET ALONG WHEN YOU LIVE WITH 2,500 PEOPLE THAT YOU SEE EVERY DAY FOREVER. AND, WHEN ASKED WHY DO YOU THIS WEIR THE MYSTERY WEIR, THE OPERATOR SAID, WELL IT IS A MYSTERY WHY SO MANY FAMILIES HAVE MANAGED TO MAKE A LIVING FOR SO LONG OUT OF IT. BUT I WAS TRANSFIXED BY THIS IMAGE OF MEN WORKING SO HARD TO HAUL THIS BOUNTY OF FISH INTO THEIR BOATS. IT IS SORT OF BEAUTIFUL AND TERRIBLE AND INCREDIBLY INTENSE. AND — THEY COMPLETELY CAPTURED BOTH THE MEN DOING THE WORK AND THE FISH STRUGGLING, BOTH STRUGGLING EQUALLY IN A WAY FOR THEIR LIVES AND LIVELIHOOD. SO, HERRING AS I HAVE SAID, ARE ABOUT TO FALL AND IN A WAY THEY MEAN BOUNTY. BEING NUMEROUS IS A VERY GOOD THERE IS LOTS OF EVIDENCE WHEN THEY HAVE BEEN OVER-FISHED AS FISHING TECHNIQUES HAVE GOTTEN MORE SOPHISTICATED. BOATS GET BIGGER THEY CAN GO OUT INTO DEEPER WATER TO CHASE FISH WHEREVER THEY GO. THERE HAVE BEEN TIMES WHEN THERE HAS BEEN OVERFISHING OF THE HE BUT WHAT HAS HAPPENED IS THAT REGULATIONS COME IN. THE HERRING REBOUND. THEY ARE VERY RESILIENT. THAT’S HAPPENED IN ICE HRA*PB. IN THE CANADIAN MARE TIMES. MARITIMES,UNLIKE OTHER FISH, CO, NEWFOUNDLAND, THE HERRING DO VERY WELL IN THEIR ABUNDANCE. THEY CAN MIGRATE IN SHOALS AS LONG AS NINE MILES AND WIDE AS TWO MILES. THESE ARE ENORMOUS SCHOOLS OR SHOALS OF FISH. MIGRATING IN THE NORTH ATLANTIC. WHAT DO THEY LIVE ON? THEY LIVE ON THIS TINY ORGANISM, THE SIZE OF A KERNEL OF RICE. THIS IS CALANUS FINMARCHICUS, A COPEPOD, OR ZOOPLANKTON, A MASSIVE OIL SAC IN ITS BODY, WONDERFUL SOURCE OF NUT AND SUPPORTS LOTS OFFING OR NAMES IN THE FOOD WEB, HERRING, SHRIMP UP TO WHALES. SOME OF THE LARGEST ANIMALS ON EARTH ARE SUPPORTED BY SOME OF THE SMALLEST ORGANISMS ON EARTH. THERE IS SOME VERY INTERESTING THINGS ABOUT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE HERRING AND CALANUS FINMARCHICUS. WHEN THE HERRING ARE FEEDING IN AN ABUNDANT FIELD, SHALL WE SAY, OF THIS PARTICULAR COPEPOD, THEY — THEY FISH WITH A STRATEGY THAT IS CALLED SYNCHROPREDATION, OR SOME TIMES CALLED RAM FEEDING. THE HERRING LINE UP AT THE EXACT DISTANCE FROM ONE ANOTHER THAT IS THE JUMP DISTANCE OF THE PREY. SO, HERRINGS COMING UP BEHIND A LITTLE COPEPOD, OOH, I WILL OUT OF THE WAY. RIGHT IN FRONT OF THE MOUTH OF THE NEXT HERRING. SO IT’S — IT’S, IT’S NOT A VERY EFFECTIVE JUMP THAT THEY HAVE. BUT, WHAT’S PARTICULARLY INTERESTING IS THAT, THAT, THAT RELATIONSHIP, THAT BEHAVIOR OF THE PREY, IS ACTUALLY SHAPING SOME OF THE IMPORTANT STRUCTURE AND BEHAVIOR OF THE HERRING. HERE IS THE REGION THAT WE TALKING ABOUT. THIS IS THE GREAT ATLANTIC SHELF. SO BEFORE, BEFORE, WELL, 12,000 YEARS AGO THIS AREA WAS SUBMERGED IN WATER. WHEN THE LAST ICE AGE MELTED THIS BECAME THE LAND FORM THAT WE ARE AWARE OF NOW. AND IT — IT IS A VERY ABUNDANT AREA FOR FISHING. IN PART, BECAUSE YOU HAVE THESE TWO CURRENTS. YOU HAVE WARM WATER COMING UP FROM THE GULF STREA EVER WARME AND YOU HAVE COLD WATER COMING DOWN FROM THE CURRE AND THE EFFECT OF THIS IS TO CREATE A VERY HABITABLE AREA FOR THE CALANUS FINMARCHICUS AS WELL AS MANY OTHER ANIMALS THAT IN THE AREA. SO, CERTAINLY, NATIVE PEOPLES WOULD HAVE BEEN FISHING ALONG THESE SHORELINES FOR THOUSAND OF YEARS. BUT IN TERMS OF FISHING BY EUROPEANS, THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY REPORTS, THAT BY THE YEAR OF 1000, BASQUE FISHERS FROM NORTHERN SPAIN COME OVER TO THIS REGION, THE GRAND BANKS OFF OF THIS GREAT ATLANTIC SHELF, AND THEY HAD — CREATED AN INTERNATIONAL FISHI TRADE TAKING SALT FISH BACK TO EUROPE. SO, THEY MANAGED TO KEEP THIS BOUNTIFUL FISHING GROUND A SECRET FROM OTHER EUROPEANS FOR AROUND 500 YEARS. THEN, A FELLOW, KNOWN AS, GIOVANI CABOTO, WHO WE KNOW AS JOHN CABOT, AN ITALIAN EXPLORER, CAPTAINING AN ENGLISH SHIP CAME TO THIS REGION, LOOKING FOR A SPICE ROUTE. AND FOUND 1,000 BASQUE VESSELS FISHING IN THESE WATERS. AND, WELL, IT WAS THEN AND BECAME NOT A SOURCE FOR SPICE BUT A SOURCE FOR OTHER GOODS OF VALUE. IT WAS SAID AT THIS TIME, LEGEND HOLDS THAT YOU COULD SCOOP THE FISH UP WITH A BUCKET THEY WERE SO BOUNTIFUL. I’M GOING TO, BEFORE I FOCUS GRAND MANAN ISLAND, I WANT TO SHOW YOU A LITTLE BIT OF CONTEXT ABOUT THE ATLANTIC FISHERY ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE ATLANTIC. BECAUSE, THERE IS VERY STRONG SIMILARITIES BETWEEN WHAT WAS GOING ON THERE AND WHAT HAS ON IN THE NORTHEAST AND THE MARITIMES AND IN NEW ENGLAND. SO, THIS IS — THIS IS AN IMAGE OF THE WHAT ARE KNOWN AS THE SCOTTISH HERRING LASSES, THEY WOULD GO FROM VILLAGE TO VI AS THE FISH CAME IN. AND THEY WOULD WORK ON THE SHORE VERY OFTEN WORK ON THE DOCKS WAS DONE BY WOMEN, CLEANING, SOR THE FISH. AND, THIS IS — YOU WOULD HAVE SEEN THE SCENE LIKE THIS IN GREAT BRITAIN MAYBE AS EARLY AS THE 1500s AND CERTAINLIEN N ENGLAND IN THE 1800s. IT WAS A PRIMARY WAY OF CURING FISH AND PRESERVING THEM BEFORE WE HAD REFRIGERATION AND ANO METHOD OF COURSE WAS SMOKING. HERE IS AN ENGRAVING FROM FRANCE, FROM 1878 WHERE THE FISH ARE BEING SMOKED RIGHT IN THE CHIMNEY OF THE FIRE. HERE IS ANOTHER IMAGE OF THESE WONDERFUL SALTED FISH BARRELS. AGAIN THE SCOTTISH HERRING LOOSES HAPPILY WORKING AWAY. HOW THEY MAKE THEM ALL LOOK SO HAPPY. HENRY DAVID THOREAU, VIS CAPE COD AND WROTE ABOUT IT IN 1851, ACTUALLY WROTE ABOUT METAPHOR OF THE BARRELS LIKE CORDED WOOD HE SAID. I MISTOOK THEM FOR THIS AT AND SUCH IN ONE SENSE THEY WERE FUEL TO MAINTAIN OUR VITAL FIRES. AND EASTERN WOOD WHICH GREW ON THE GRAND BANKS. AGAIN, THE WOMEN WORKING AT CLEANING AND SORTING THE FISH OF THIS VERY COMMON AND ALSO PART OF THE SOCIAL LIFE OF WOMEN AND I LOVE TO IMAGINE THE — THE POSSIBLY BAWDY GIRL TALK THAT WENT ON, OR THE GRIPING ABOUT WHAT WAS GOING ON AT HOME OR, IN THE VILLAGE SQUARE, THAT WENT ON AS THEY WORKED SIDE BY SIDE AT, AT LONG LABOR. IN THESE VILLAGES AS THE FISH CAME IN. THE WOMEN ALSO, SAME THING IN ICELAND WHERE THEY HAD A VERY LARGE HERRING FISHERY FOR THE WOMEN THERE WOULD COME INTO THE CENTER OF THE HER INDUSTRY THERE AND STAYEN A THEY DIDN’T GO FROM VILLAGE TO VILLAGE BECAUSE THE HARVESTING WAS FOCUSED IN THIS ONE NORTHERN VILLAGE IN ICELAND. BUT THEY HAD DORMS. THEY WOULD COME IN FROM OTHER VILLAGES AND STAY THERE. AND WORK AWAY. I DON’T KNOW HOW THIS WOMAN IS LOOKING SO VERY HAPPY. BUT SHE ANOTHER SCOTTISH HERRING LASS, I LOVE THE PICTURE OF HER. SHE MAY BE TAKING THE BASKETS FISH TO, TO BE SOLD ON THE STREETS OF THE VILLAGE OR HOUSE TO HOUSE. BUT I LOVE HER APPARENT JOY, AND I ALSO LOVE THOSE MUTTON SLEEVES, IMAGINE THE MUSCLES SHE HAS UNDER THERE OF THIS HARD-WORKING WOMAN. SO HERE IS THE REGION THAT I AM GOING TO FOCUS ON. THIS LITTLE ISLAND IS MANAN ISLAND. THIS IS NOVA SCOTIA, CAPE COD, ALL OF THIS IS THE GULF OF MAINE. AND UP HERE, THIS LONG, DEEP BAY IS THE BAY OF THE BAY OF FUNDY HAS THE HIG TIDES IN THE WORLD. UP AT THE HEAD OF THE BAY THEY CAN BE 40, 50 FEET. THAT’S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HIGH AND LOW TIDE. AND OUT AT THE MOUTH OF THE BAY, WHERE WE ARE, IS A LITTLE MORE 20 FEE MAYBE 30 AT THE HIGHEST TIDES OF THE YEAR. SO THESE ARE DIFFICULT WATERS, FULL OF CURRENTS. RIPS, UNEXPECTED OCCURRENC THAT CAN BLOW UP OUT OF NOWHERE. SO THIS, WHILE IT IS VERY GOOD FISHING FISHING TERRITORY, IT IS ALSO SOMEWHAT PERILOUS. AS SOME OF YOU MAY VERY KNOW IF YOU ARE INTERESTED IN FISHING, COMMERCIAL FISHING IS THE MOST DANGEROUS PROFESSION THE WORLD. PEOPLE ARE LOST. IN EVERY FISHING COM EVERY FISHING COMMUNITY KNOWS PEOPLE WHO HAVE BEEN LOST. SO, THERE IS A KIND OF GRIEF AND SOCIAL CONNECTION THAT COMES FROM THAT SHARED PERIL OF THOSE WHO WORK IN THE FISHERY. SO, THE HERRING WILL MIGRATE UP INTO THIS AREA. IN THE SUMMER. THIS IS WHERE THEIR SPAWNING GROUND IS. SO GRAND MANAN ISLAND IS DAB IN THE MIDDLE OF IT. SO IT IS A WONDERFUL PLACE FOR HERRING FISHING TO HAPPEN. BUT OF COURSE IT DEPEND ON HERRING ARRIVING THERE. HERRING GENERALLY FOLLOW A FAIRLY PREDICTABLE MIGRATION RO AND THEN THEY CAN CHANGE MIND AND DO SOMETHING DIFFERENT. I ASKED ANDY PERSHING AT GULF OF MAINE RESEARCH INSTITUTE. HOW COME? WHY WOULD THEY CHANGE LIKE THAT? HE SAID IT HAS TO DO WITH THE IF THE FOOD AREN’T THERE, THE FISH AREN’T THERE. NO CALANUS FINMARCHICUS, NO HERRING. ON GRAND MANAN ISLAND, THE PREDOMINANT METHOD FOR FISHING IS THIS STRUCTURE CALLED THE HERRING WEIR. A COMMERCIAL ADAPTATION OF INDIGENOUS METHODS OF FIS AND IT’S BEEN USED ON THIS ISLAND FOR A COUPLE OF HUNDRED THIS IS A WEIR CALLED PATS COVE WEIR, OPERATED BY THE INGILLS FAMILY, THIS IS WEIR, THE ISLANDERS WOULD SAY ALL DRESSED FOR THE HUNDREDth YEAR, THIS LAST SUMMER. THE WAY IT WORKS, THE HERRING COME TO SHORE THAT NIGHT TO AND AS THEY COME IN, THEY’RE CHASING THE PREY WHICH COME TO THE SHORE AT NIGHT. THEY’LL RUN INTO THIS FENCE WHICH DIRECTS THEM IN THIS DIRECTION, THEY GO THROUGH THIS LITTLE GATE. ONCE THEY GET IN HERE THEY TEND TO CIRCLE AND CIRCLE AND CIRCLE. AND INSTINCT NEVER TELLS A HERRING, HEY, SWIM TOWARDS SHORE. INSTINCT TELLS A HERRING, SWIM TOWARDS THE SEA. WHEN IT DOES IT END UP CIRCLING AND CIRCLING AND STUCK IN THE SO THOSE NETS GO ALL THE DONE TO THE SEA BED AND THEN, YOU WILL SEE, EXACTLY HOW THEY HARVEST THEM, IT IS KIND OF A THRILLING AND WONDERFUL EXPERIENCE. OH, THESE WEIRS ARE QUITE THIS IS ONE CALLED THE INTRU THIS ONE IS A KIND OF SQU IN FORM BECAUSE THE SEA BED DROPS OFF AND SO, YOU JUST CAN’T GET THE STAKES INTO THE SEA BED. SO IT IS A KIND OF SQUISHED BUT IT TAKES ENORMOUS SKILL AND MANY DECADES OF LEARNING TO HOW TO BUILD THESE THINGS. READING THE SEA. READING THE TIDES. READING THE BEHAVIOR OF THE FISH. READING THE TERRAIN OF THE SEA BED. KNOWING HOW THE FISH ARE GOING TO MOVE AND WHERE TO PUT THAT FENCE TOGETHER. IT IS, IT IS AN AMAZINGLY IMPRESSIVE TECHNOLOGY. AND, IT IS BEAUTIFUL. THEY LOOK LIKE WORKS OF ART DON’T THEY? I THINK THEY LOOK MORE LIKE THAN A FISHNET. HERE IS A CLOSE-UP OF HOW THE TWINE IS LACED TOG YOU CAN SEE HOW THE BOTTOM DROP ALL THE WAY DOWN AND THEN THEY STITCH UP, NETS ALL THE TO THE TOP. YOU HAVE TO BE REBUILT EVERY SPRING AND SUMMER AN EXPENSIVE AND LABOR-INTENSIVE EFFOR THIS HASN’T ALWAYS BEEN THE WAY FISHING WAS DONE IN THE REGION. IN THE 1800s, THIS IS WINSLOW HOMER’S WONDERFUL PAINTING “THE HERRING NET,” FROM 1885. THIS IS A DORIE, THE SMALL IS A DORIE GILL NETTING FOR IF YOU LOOK IN THE BACKGROUND SEE THE HAZY IMAGES OF SKAOPBERS. THE MOTHER SHIPS WOULD GO FROM BOARD. 10, 11 DAYS TO GET TO THE BANKS. THEY MAY HAVE 20 DORIES STACKED ON DECK. GET OUT TO THE FISHING GROUNDS THEY TAKE THE DORIES OFF INTO THE WATER, FISHERMEN GO OUT, ONE, TWO MEN TO A BOAT. THEY FILL THEIR BOAT. THEY BRING IT BACK TO THE MOTHER SHIP AND THEY KEEP DOING IT UNTIL THEY HAVE FILLED THE MOTHER SHIP. OBVIOUSLY, YOU CAN SEE THE EVEN IN THIS ONE. ISN’T PARTICULARLY CALM FOR A SMALL BOAT LIKE THIS. WELL, THERE ARE LOTS OF STO ON AN ISLAND THE SIZE OF MANAN ISLAND, WITH 2500 PEOPLE. AND, I AM REALLY INTERESTED IN FISHERMEN’S STORIES AND PERIL AND ADVENTURE ON THE HIGH SEAS. SO PEOPLE TOLD ME THAT A FISHERMAN HAD BEEN LOST AT WHO HAD LIVED IN OUR HOUSE AND LIVED IN HIS DORIE FOR A WEEK. I HEARD THIS STORY YEAR AFTER NOBODY REALLY NO WHO IT WAS OR IF IT WAS TRUE. SO I WENT DOWN TO THE MANAN ISLAND ARCHIVES AT LOCAL MUSEUM, AND, THE ARCHIVIST PULLED OUT THIS NEWSPAPER ARTICLE. AND I LEARNED THE STORY OF MANTFORT SMITH, SON OF THE MAN WHO PW-LT OUR HOUSE. SMITH AT AGE 19 WENT TO SEA ON A SHIP CALLED THE NELLIE WOODBURY. THERE WAS A CREW FROM BOTH GRAND MANAN, EASTPOINT MAINE, COMMON, NEWBRUNSWICK FISHERS WORKING TOGETHER. 1887. THEY GO OUT HEADING TO THE GRAND BANKS. THEY HAVE 2,800 BUSHELS OF SALT ON BOARD THE SCHOONER IN TO CURE THE FISH THEY CATCH. THEY’RE GOING TO BE OUT FOR 116 THEY’RE UNDER SAIL POWER ONLY SAIL POWER. THIS IS MAY, THEY GET OUT THERE. AND THE CAPTAIN SEES THE BAROMETER DIVE. HE IS CONCERNED, BLOWS A WARNING, TO THE MAN OUT IN THE HE HAS GOT 21 MEN OUT IN 20 DORIES, OUT IN THE WAVES LIKE WE SAW IN, WINSLOW HOMER’S, HE BLOWS THE WARNING FOR THE FISHERMEN TO COME BACK. THEY IGNORE IT. THEY’RE FIS HE BLOWS THE WARNING ONE OF THE FISHERMEN HOLDS UP COD AND PATS IT AND GIVES HIM A BIG GRIN AND THE CAPTAIN YOU GUYS ARE GOING TO DIE ONE OF THESE DAYS FOR YOUR FOOLISHNESS. DOESN’T STOP THEM. THEY HAVE GOT FISH FEVER. THEY’RE GOING FOR IT. THE STORM BLEW UP. VERY UNEXPECTED SQUALL, WAVES HIGH THAT THE CAPTAIN COULDN’T EVEN SEE SOME OF THE DORIES AS THEY ROSE UP BEHIND A WAVE. THEY MANAGED TO GET SIX OR SEVEN OF THE DORIES OVER TO THE SHIP AND THE MEN GOT ON BOARD. MANTFORD SMITH WAS BLOWN 20 TO 30 MILES AWAY FROM THE MOTHER SHIP. AND HE THREW ALL THE FISH HE HAD IN HIS BOAT, OFF INTO THE WA HE WAS — HE TRIED TO ROW BACK TO GOT TO WHERE THE BOAT WAS. WHEN HE FINALLY SAW IT, HIS OAR LOCKS BROKE. HE WAS SO TIRED HE SAID, I DIDN’T HAVE THE STRENGTH OF A SO HE FINALLY, HE FINALLY BACK TO THE SHIP. THEY TRIED TO THROW A ROPE TO HIM. HE COULDN’T, DIDN’T HAVE THE STRENGTH TO HOLD IT. SO THEY TIED IT AROUND HIS THE SEA WAS SO HIGH, THAT THEY COULDN’T EVEN PULL HIM UP OUT OF THE BOAT. SO THEY SPILLED, THEY HAD GATHERED COD LIVER OIL, THEY SPILLED COD LIVER OIL FROM THE MOTHER SHIP WHICH CALMED THE WATERS A BIT. AFTER WHICH THEY COULD PULL UP BY THE WAIST ON THIS ROPE. HE SAID, I COULDN’T STAND UP I WAS SO WEAK. AND THE LAST THING HE SAID, MANTFORD SMITH, AGE 19, I SHALL NEVER FORGET SEEING HIS, HIS FRIEND, LAPRIELLE, SEEING HIS HAND RISE UP OUT OF THE WATER AS HE WENT DOWN AND TRIED TO WAVE GOOD-BYE TO ME. THEY WENT BACK, TOOK THEM 11 DAYS TO GET BACK HOME. THEY HAD LOST ALL OF THE OTHER GRAND MANANERS ON THE SHIP. MANTFORD THE ONLY ONE TO NEXT OCTOBER, SMITH WENT WITH THE SAME CAPTAIN AGAIN BAC TO THE GRAND BANKS TO FISH. THIS IS JUST ONE STORY. THERE ARE JUST ENDLESS STORIES OF THE COURAGE, BRAVEY, RUGGEDNESS OF WORKING IN THESE WATERS. IT MADE ME WANT TO KNOW MORE ABUT THE HISTORY OF THE FISHERY. AND THE PRECURSORS TO THE FISHERY THAT HAPPENS O MANAN ISLAND. SO I WONDERED, WHAT I HAD HEARD THAT, INDIGENOUS PEOPLE USED THESE METHODS OF BUILDING WEIRS AND THE OLDEST RECORD THAT I HAVE ENCOUNTERED IS OF THIS SEBASTICOOK LAKE WEIR COMPLEX. IT WAS A STUDY PUBLISHED IN 1994 IN THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF EASTERN NORTH AMERICA. THAT, THAT, DOCUMENTED THE USE OF GROUND PENETRATING RADAR AND OTHER TECHNOLOGIES TO, TO DETERMINE THAT THEY WERE OVER 600 SHARPENED STAKES DRIVEN INTO THE GLACIAL MUD OF THIS LAKE TO BUILD A WEIR STRUCTURE WHERE THE FISH WOULD ENTER IN AS THEY WERE MIGRATING, CAPTURED, HARVESTED IN THE BASKETS. THIS IS FRESHWATER. SO THESE WERE PROBABLY THE THAT THEY WERE CATCHING, A RELATIVE OF THE ATLANTIC HERRING. THAT’S, THAT IS, HAS BEEN CARBON DATED TO ABOUT 7,800 YEARS AGO IT MAY BE THE OLDEST DOCUMENTED WEIR SITE IN ALL OF NORTH AMERICA. SO THESE METHODS HAVE BEEN USED FOR A VERY, VERY, VERY LONG TIME. THE EARLIEST RECORD THAT I CAN FIND, WRITTEN RECORD OF THE BUILDING OF A WEIR WAS BY CAPTAIN WILLIAM POTE, A SEA CAPT SAILING FROM BOSTON TO NOVA HE WAS CAPTURED BY A BAND OF INDIANS THAT HE CALLED HERONS, LIKE THE BIRD. NOBODY, NOBODY KNOWS OF GROUP OF INDIANS CALLED THE HERONS, IT WAS MOST LIKELY HISTORY SUGGESTS IT WOULD BEEN PEOPLE IN NEWBRUNSWIC HE WAS HELD CAPTIVE FOR TWO AND DURING THAT TIME, THERE WAS A LONG FORCED MARCH. AND HE REPORTS IN THIS, REALLY FASCINATING JOURNAL OF HIS CAPTIVITY OF THEM FINDING A BIG MASS OF SALMON PLAYING IN — IN A STREAM AS IT WAS — OUTLET COMING INTO THE SEA. AND SO THE INDIANS IMMEDIATELY BUILT A WEIR USING BRUSH AND BLANKETS THEY STOPPED IT UP. THEY GATHERED, 40, 50 SALMON WHICH THEY THEN DRIED OVER A FIRE AND PUT IN THEIR PACKS. AND CARRIED ON. WITH THEIR JOURNEY. SO THAT’S IN THE MID 1700s, KNOW THAT THIS IS A — A METHOD THAT WAS CERTAINLY USED BY NATIVE PEOPLE IN THE AREA. SO THERE IS A TRADITION THAT, THAT’S LASTED — A FEW THOUSAND YEARS. SO WHAT HAPPENED, WITH THE ANGLOS, THE FIRST DOC WE HAVE OF THE ANGLOS, T.W. SMILIE FIRST PHOTOGRAPHER FOR SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION HE COMES UP TO EAST PORT MAINE IN THE 80S AND TAKES PHOTOGRAPHS AND MAKES ENGRAVINGS OF THE FISHING METHODS THAT ARE BEING USED THAT TIME. AND THEY ARE, BRUSH WEIRS. I SHOULD SAY — SARDINE AND HERRING I SORT OF USE THOSE WORDS INTERCHANGEABLY. A SARDINE GENERALLY IN THIS PART OF THE WORLD, OR IN THAT PART THE WORLD, IS A JUVENILE HERRING. A SARDINE IN SARDINIA MAY BE JUVENILE PILCHARD. SARDINE IS A LITTLE GENERIC T FOR A JUVENILE FISH LIKE A HERRING. SO, YOU CAN SAY THAT THE STRUCTURE IS VERY MUCH LIKE THAT, VERY EARLY SEBASTICOOK LAKE STRUCTURE BUILT WITH STICKS ALONG THE SHORE. HERE YOU CAN SEE WHAT THE ISLANDERS WOULD CALL TOP BRUSH. THERE WOULD BE BOTTOM GOING DOWN TO THE BOTTOM OF THE, OF THE WEIR, TO KEEP THE FISH. SO THE FISH SWIM IN, HIGH TIDE, WHEN THE TIDE GOES OUT. THEY, THE — THE FISHERS CAN COME AND GATHER THE FISH IN CARTS AND TACK THEM RIGHT INTO THE SMOKE HOUSES ON THE LAND. — TAKE THEM RIGHT INTO SMOKE HOUSES ON THE LAND. RIGHT ALONG THE SHO THERE ARE NO NETS. NOT INDUSTRIAL METHOD, USING MATERIALS AT HAND AT THIS POINT IN HIS SO THIS IS IN THE 1880S. HERE IS AN EXAM ALL ONE ALONG A ROCKY SHORE. SO YOU CAN’T EVEN DRIVE STAKES LIKE THIS INTO THE GROUND ON SUCH A ROCKY SHORE. SO THEY WOULD BUILD THESE BALLASTED STRUCTURES, 3, 4 FEET SO THERE ARE ROCKS IN THERE TO ANCHOR THESE — THESE, WOODEN STRUCTURES WHERE THE BRUSH CAN BE — PLANTED SO TO SPEAK. SO THAT IS — A METHOD USED ON ROCKY SHORE YOU WILL SEE — SILL EVIDENCE OF THAT COMING. HERE IS THE SMOKE SHED. MORE OF SMILIE’S ENG THIS IS — AGAIN, EASTPORT MAINE, YOU WILL SEE THIS IS SIMILAR TO WHAT IS GOING ON GRAND MANAN ISLAND. THE METHOD, THE FISH ARE THEN THEY’RE STRUNG UP ON THESE LITTLE STAKES. AND CARRIED INTO THE — INTO THE SMOKE HOUSE. THAT, THAT — THAT, CART THEY’RE CARRYING IT ON IS CALLED A HERRING HORSE. OF COURSE THERE ARE NO HORSES. THE MEN ARE THE HORSES. AND THEY’RE WORKING HARD. HERE IS A SMOKE YOU CAN SEE THE HERRING HIGH UP. THERE IS A, SLOW SAW DUST GOING ON THE FLOOR. OF THE SMOKE HOUSE. AND THE FISH ARE SLOWLY SMOKED. THE WOODEN BOXES IN THE FOREGROUND ARE THE BOXES THAT ARE USED TO SHIP THE FISH TO THE CARIBBEAN, TO VENEZUELA, TO PLACES WHERE THEY LACKED REFRIGERATION AND — THOSE WERE 10 POUND BOXES THAT WERE PACKED FOR INTERNATIONAL TRADE. SO IT IS QUITE INTERESTING THAT THIS REGION HAD A KIND OF GLOBALIZED ECONOMY. FROM THE MID 1800s OR AT LEAST LATE 1800s INTO THE CURRENT TIME. KIDS USED TO ASSEMBLE THE 10-POUND WOODEN BOXES. THE OLD GUY ON THE ISLAND TOLD ME WE PAID A NICKEL APIECE. THEY LOVED IT. BUT LITTLE GRAND MANAN, TINY ISLAND, BECAME KNOWN AS HERRING CAPITAL OF THE WORLD. IN 1884, 1 MILLION BOXES, LOCALLY PROCESSED HERRING SENT FOR EXPORT. ABSOLUTELY REMARKABLE. SO HERE IS 1938, SO WE JUMPED 50-SOME-ODD YEARS. A PHOTOGRAPHER CAME UP FROM NEW YORK, GEORGE DANIEL, AND HE DID A REALLY STUNNING SET OF PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE HERRING YOU CAN SEE THEY’RE STILL USING THESE BRUSH WEIRS, THERE STILL AREN’T NETS AND TWINE. THEY’RE USING LOCAL RESOURCES. THIS FISHERMAN HERE IS A NAMED SETON ILLINGWOOD, I THINK GEORGE DANIEL WAS SORT OF IN LOVE WITH HIM. SO MANY PICTURES OF SETON ILLINGWOOD, THEY’RE ROMANTIC. OF COURSE HE IS THE JAM OF THE FISHERY. WHAT HE IS DOING HERE WITH HIS HAND OVER THE SIDE IS HE IS FEELING FOR HERRING. WITH A LINE DROPPED DOWN INTO THE WEIR AND THE TENSION ON THAT LINE TELLS HIM HOW MANY HERRING THERE IN THE WEIR. WHEN THEY’RE CAUGHT, THEY’RE LOADED INTO SARDINE CARRIER, THOSE DAYS THEY WOULD HAVE BEEN BROUGHT TO THE SMOKE HOUSES ON THE ISLAND. AND HERE WE SEE, 1938, REALLY THE SAME THING AS WE SAW IN THE SMILIE ENGRAVINGS FROM THE 18 AND THESE ARE ALL GRAND MANAN IMAGES OF THE — OF THE HERRING HORSES WITH THE MEN TAKING HERRING INTO THE SMOKING SHED AND OUT OF THE SMOKING SHED. THESE ARE THE SEAL COVE, SMOKE STANDS, REALLY KIND OF ICONIC HERE IS THE WOMAN WORKING AS, AS YOU SAW IN SCOTLAND, OTHER AREAS, THE WOMEN DID MUCH OF THE CLEANING, AND, AND, PREPARING OF THE FISH AFTER THEY HAD BEEN SMOKED. AND, YOU KNOW THERE ARE A NUMBER OF INTERESTING ASPECTS TO WOMEN’S LABOR IN THIS INDUSTRY. FOR ONE, A NEIGHBOR OF MINE TOLD ME, I LOVE THIS. A NEIGHBOR OF MINE TOLD ME, SHE AS A YOUNG WOMAN USED TO WORK AT THE SMOKE STANDS AND IT WOULD BE CHARACTERISTIC TO SEE A LINE OF WOMEN AT A BIG TABLE. THIS IS AN UNUSUAL PHOTO FOR THE GEORGE DANIEL ONE. BECAUSE IT IS SIMILARLY, WOULD DO THIS, YUCKING IT UP, BITCHING AND MOANING AND DOING WHAT WOMEN LOVE TO DO WHEN THEY’RE HANGING OUT TOGETHER. ALL LINED UP AT THE THIS NEIGHBOR TOLD ME, YEAH, USED TO DO THAT YOU KNOW WHAT I DID TO PROTECT MY FINGERS, FROM THE FINS AND THE SHARP KNIVES, I CROCHETED FINGER COTS TO PROTECT MY FINGERS. BEAUTIFUL MEETING OF THE DOMESTIC AND THE INDUSTRIAL. THE FISHING ALSO ESTABLISH OTHER GENDER PATTERNS FOR, FOR THE ISLAND WHICH I THINK ARE EXTREMELY INTERESTING. SO, YOU IMAGINE THOSE DAYS WHEN MEN WERE AT SEA FOR WEEKS IF NOT MONTHS AT A TIME. WOMEN THEN AT THE HOME, BECAME THE CEOs, THE CFOs, THEY RAN EVERYTHING, THEY WERE IN CHARGE OF EVERYTHING HAD FULL AS THEY HAD TO WITH THEIR HUSBANDS AT SEA FOR SO LONG. THEN, WHEN THE MEN CAME BACK, THE WOMEN CEDEED ALL OF THE RESPONSIBILITY BACK TO THE MEN. SO THEY BECAME VERY COMPETENT VERY SKILLED, AND VERY, SHALL WE SAY, WILY IN HOW FLEXIBLE THEY WERE IN UNDERSTANDING THAT GENDER ROLES COULD BE FLUID AND PROBABLY NEED TO BE FLUID IN THIS KIND OF COMMUNITY. THERE IS A CANADIAN CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY MAJOR, JOHN M HAS WRITTEN ABOUT THI AND THERE HAVE BEEN A LOT OF SUPERSTITIONS ABOUT WOMEN ON FISHING BOA AND FOR MANY YEARS, FOR MOST GRAND MANAN ISLAND’S HERRING FISHERIES AND OTHER FISHERIES, FISHERMEN WOULD NOT TAKE WOMEN ON THE BOATS. AND IT IS A KIND OF SUPERSTITION, DOES IT MAKE ANY SENSE, IT IS HARD TO SAY, BECAUSE SOME OF THE OTHER SUPERSTITIONS ARE DON’T TAKE A BALONEY SANDWICH ON A BET AND DON’T WEAR CORDUROY ON A BOAT. AND YOU KNOW IT IS, WHEN YOU ARE ENGAGED IN THIS KIND OF DANGEROUS WORK YOU NEED SOMETHING TO BLAME FOR MISFORTUNE. UNFORTUNATELY, WOMEN WERE WHEN THEY WEREN’T ON THE BOATS. BUT THAT’S CHANGING NOW. WE ARE CERTAINLY HAPPY TO SEE IN FACT, ONE OF MY STUDENTS KIM BUSSING HAD A PIECE PUBLISHED IN “VICE” ABOUT WOMEN IN THE CANADIAN FISHERY WHO ARE NOW GETTING ON THE BOATS. AND WORKING SIDE BY SIDE WITH MEN. THE FIRST WOMAN I KNOW WHO DID IT WAS, NOBODY WOULD TAKE HER THIS LADY, TEN YEARS AGO. FOR EITHER THE SUPERSTITION OR FIGURING SHE JUST WOULDN’T HAVE THE STAMINA AND — AND PHYSICAL STRENGTH FOR WORKING ON A LOBSTER BOAT WHICH IS VERY BUT IT IS ALSO VERY LUCRATIVE. THIS WOMAN WAS DETERMINED SHE WAS GOING TO CREW ON A LOBSTER BOAT SO SHE PERSISTED. THE ONLY GUY WHO WOULD TACK HER ON WAS A CAPTAIN WHO WAS — REALLY KNOWN AS A DISREPUTABLE DANGEROUS PROBABLY DRUG ADDICTED GUY WHO LOST A COUPLE OVERBOARD THE PREVIOUS YEAR ALTHOUGH HE DID MANAGE TO SAVE SO SHE SAID OKAY, SURE. SO SHE WORKED FOR HIM FOR A SEAS OF COURSE, NOW, ANYBODY WILL HIRE HER AND TREAT HER WITH TREMENDOUS RESPECT. SO THINGS CHANG HERE IS A SEAL COVE SMOKE SHED AT THE TIME OF GEORGE DANIEL’S PHOTOGRAPH, THIS IS AGAIN IN THE THESE SMOKE SHEDS WERE STILL OPERATING IN THE 50S AND 60S WHEN I WAS A CHILD. AND IT — I KNOW IT DOESN’T SOUND VERY ROMANTIC. BUT IT WAS. YOU DRIVE INTO A VILLAGE AND YOU WOULD SMELL THIS BEAUTIFUL OF SMOKING FISH, AND AGENTLE SAW DUST FIRE, AND YOU LOOK UP AND YOU SEE THIS GOLDEN OIL DRIPPING OFF THE FISH AS THEY WERE CURING IN THE I MEAN, AND PEOPLE ON THE ISLAND STILL TALK ABOUT, OH, THAT WHAT I WOULD GIVE TO SMELL THAT YOU ARE PROBABLY THINKING THAT’S BUT THERE WAS A SORT OF SENSE OF COMMUNITY AND BELONGING ASSOCIATED WITH THAT SMELL. THAT MANY PEOPLE MISS TERRIBLY. NOW, ALL OF THESE COMMERCIAL SMOKE SHEDS ARE GONE. EVEN THE SARDINE FACTORIES ARE USED TO BE TWO SARDINE FAC ON THE ISLAND. THE MARKET FOR SMOKED FISH HAS DECLINED BECAUSE REFRIGERATION IS WIDESPREAD. AND ALSO, RULES ABOUT SAFETY AND HEALTH BECAME MUCH MORE RIGID IN THE ’50s AND ’60S AND MANY TRADITIONAL METHODS JUST COULDN’T RISE TO THAT LEVEL OF — CONSTRICTION. AND THE SARDINE FACTORIES CLOSED BECAUSE THEY BECAME RUN BY MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS ON THE MAINLAND AND THEY HAVE NO INTEREST IN SUPPORTING A SMALL COMMUNITY. THEY HAVE INTEREST IN EFFICIENCY AND, THEY HAVE A MASSIVE, MASSIVE SARDINE FACTORY IN BLACKS HARBOR NEW BRUNSWICK WHERE HERRING GO IF THEY’R GOING TO BE USED FOR SARDINES. THIS MAP WAS MADE BY BUCHANAN CHARLES IN 1939. FOR THE GRAND MANAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY. IT SHOWS 86 WEIRS AROUND THE EVERY 1,000 FEET THERE WAS A HERRING WEIR. NOWADAYS, THERE ARE NINE OR TEN MOST AND MOST PEOPLE FEEL IT’S NOT LIKELY TO SURVIVE MUCH LONGER. BECAUSE THESE MORE SOPHISTICATED TECHNOLOGIES THAT CAN CHASE THE HERRING IN DEEP WATER CAN MAKE A BIGGER CATCH FASTER. AND, MORE WASTEFULLY THAN A HERRING WEIR. A HERRING WEIR CAN BE SUSTAINABLE FISHERY BECAUSE YOU PUT THE HERRING WEIR UP AND YOU WAIT FOR THE FISH TO COME. YOU CAN’T CHASE THEM. YOU ARE IN A RELATIONSHIP WITH THE HERRING THAT’S VERY, VERY DIFFERENT. SOME SAY, A BOOK FROM THE REGION “HERRING WEIRS THE ONLY SUSTAINABLE FISHERY”. I’M GOING TO BE SHOWING YOU, I WANT TO MENTION ONE AREA ON THIS THERE IS AN AREA HERE CALLED COW THIS IS A VERY SHALLOW AREA WHERE, IT IS ALMOST DOWN TO THE — TO THE — THE MUD, WHEN THE TIDE RUNS OUT. THERE WERE, THERE WERE MANY HERRING WEIRS IN THAT AREA. AND IT WAS, ONE OF THE, AS I BEGAN TO ASK AROUND, I WANTED FIND OUT WHAT — WHEN DID THEY START? WHAT WHAT WERE THEY LIKE? AND I ASKED A LOT OF FISHERMEN AND — AMAZINGLY MANY OF DIDN’T KNOW MUCH ABOUT THE EARLIEST HERRING WEIRS. ONE DAY I WAS AT THE FARMER’S MARKET. A YOUNG PILOT WHO RUNS A CHARTER SERVICE SAID, HEY, THERE IS ROCK WEIRS OUT IN COW PASSAGE. I WILL TAKE YOU OUT IN THE PLANE, WE WILL GO SEE THE I SAID OKAY. I ASKED FISHERMEN. THEY SAID THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS ROCK WEIRS, ON GRAND MANAN ISLAND, NO, NO, NO. AGAIN, NO, NO, NO. I ASKED ONE FISHERMAN I THINK IS THE MOST KNOWLEDGEABLE I KNO OH, YEAH, GO TO THE END OF SHILO LANE, LOWEST TIDE OF THE YEAR ONLY TIME YOU WILL SEE IT. YOU WILL BEGIN TO SEE THE REMAINS OF WHAT WE HAVE BEEN CALLING A ROCK WEIR OR STONE WEIR. SO, REALLY, NOT IMPRESSIVE. TO THE EYE. A PILE OF STONES COVERED WITH ROCK WEED. AND A LINE COULD BE SUSPICIOUS BECAUSE, STRAIGHT LINES, SOME ARCHAEOLOGISTS SAY BE SUSPICIOUS IF YOU SEE STRAIGHT LINES, NATURE DOESN’T MAKE A LOT OF STRAIGHT LINES ESPECIALLIEN THE THE TIDE GOES OUT FURTHER. HERE COMES THAT ROCK WEE YOU BEGIN TO SEE A SHAPE. TIDE GOES OUT FURTHER. YOU SEE THE SHAPE. TIDE GOES OUT ALL THE WAY AND YOU SEE HERE IS THE — HERE IS THAT ROCK WEED WALL LEADING UP THE BEACH. AND THE SHAPE COMES ALL THE WAY AND THERE IS THIS ONE OPENING, THE FISH COME IN. AS THE TIDE GOES OUT THEY’RE TRAPPE YOU CAN BLOCK THAT OFF. THEY CAN TAKE THEIR CARTS DOWN AND GATHER THE FISH. PROBABLY WHAT WE ARE SEEING IS THE REMAINS OF ONE OF THESE WEIRS, A BALLASTED WEIR, WE ARE SEEING THE STONES, THE BRUSH, ALL THE TIMBERS WOULD HAVE BEEN WASHED TO SEA IT MAY HAVE BEEN USED AS LATE AS 1920s OR 30S. SO, I DECIDED TO — GO AHEAD AND TAKE THE FLIGHT WITH OUR AND SEE WHAT HE HAD TO SHOW ME WITH THE ROCK WEIRS AND I, I, INVITED TO COME RUSSELL INGILLS, THE FISHERMAN WHO TOLD ME ABOUT THE ROCK WEIRS, HE KPUZ INTERESTED IN THE HISTORY UNDOCUMENTED ON THE ISLAND AND PETER CUNNINGHAM, FINE PHOTOGRAPHER, AND AERIAL PHOTOS ANDSOME I WILL SHOW LATER ARE FROM PETER CUNNINGHAM AND I AM DEEPLY GRATEFUL TO HIM HIS WORK. SO WE GET OUT TO COW PASSAGE. AND FROM ABOUT 1,000 FEET, ARE FLYING ALONG AND YOU SEE THIS REMARKABLE SHAPE. OUT IN THE LOW WAT IF SOME OF YOU WERE HERE FOR — THE TALK, BISON DRIVE, REM THE SHAPE WITH THE FUNNEL, DRIVING THE BYSON. BISON, SAME E HERE, REALLY GOOD SHAPE FOR GATHERING PREY. I LIKE TO CALL THIS THE WORK OF A MASTER BUILDER. THIS IS NOTHING BUT STONES, HAULED BY HUMAN HANDS. MAYBE THEY HAD AN OX CART POSSIBLY TO HELP OUT. SO THE WAY THIS WORKS, HERRINGS STEM THE TIDE. THE TIDE IS, SAY THE TIDE IS RUSHING OUT OF THE SHALLOW AREA. THE HERRING, BY INSTINCT ARE STEMMING THE TIDE. THEY COME IN HER AND BOOM. THERE IS CAPTURED IN THIS. AND THEN THIS CAN BE BLOCKED AND THEN, AS THE TIDE GOES OUT, THEY CAN COME OUT WITH — WITH OX CARTS AND GATHER THE HERRING. WELL, WE WERE ASTONISHED TO SEE THIS AND MANY OTHERS. BUT THE WEIRD THING IS — ONCE YOU START SEEING THEM, YOU START SEEING STUFF EVERYWHERE. YOU START SEEING OH, WHAT’S THAT ROUND SHAPE, AND OH, WHAT’S BAR SHAPE, AND OOH, THERE IS A NOTHER ROUND SHAPE. AND ACTUALLY, THEY, SOME OF THE LOCAL LORE SAYS THAT THERE WERE SO MANY HERRING WEIRS OUT IN COW PASSAGE, YOU COULD HARDLY GET A BOAT PAST THE BRUSH. SO, THE AMAZING THING IS THAT MOST ISLANDERS HAVE NOT EVEN KNOWN THAT THIS IS THEIR AND SO THERE IS NOW TREMENDOUS EXCITEMENT AS PEOPLE ARE, EVERYBODY WAS CALLING ME UP OR SENDING ME A FACEBOOK MESSAGE. HEY, I SAW ONE IN, NO, I SAW ONE IN WHALE COVE, HEY, DON’T THINK THAT IS ONE AT SUCH A AND PEOPLE STARTED SEEING THEM EVERYWHERE AS WE BEGAN TO BECOME AWARE THAT THERE WAS HISTORY THAT WAS REVEALING ITSELF TO US IF WE KNEW WHERE AND HOW TO LOOK. WELL, I DO WANT TO SAY SOMETHING ABOUT THE — THE OTHER ASPECT OF HERRING. WHICH IS THAT WE LOVE TO EAT THEM. SOME OF US. I HIGHLY RECOMMEND DOING SO. THE GRAND MANAN COOKBOOK OUT IN 179, I THINK DATES MUCH EAR THAN THAT, A REPRINT. IT HAS HOW CHARMINGLY, AN IF GRAPH FROM A SONG ABOUT THE HERRING. THERE WAS A — AN ALFRED GRAVES, 1th CENTURY, ALAN LOMAKES OF THE BRITISH ISLES WAS GATHERING FOLK SONGS FROM WHALES IN THE HIGHLA AND REALLY WORKED TO RENEW INTEREST IN INDIGENOUS MUSIC OF THE PLACES. AND THIS SONG IS RIGHT AT THE HEAD OF THE COOKBOOK. I WOULD ALSO SAY THERE IS NOT ONLY LOST TECHNOLOGIES, LOST SONGS, THERE IS ALSO LOST RECIPES AND LOST FOOD ITEMS THAT ARE REPRESENTED IN THE COOKBOOK. MOSTLY IT IS A VERY SIMPLE CUISINE. FISH. POTATOES. ONIONS. MILK. THAT’S ABOUT IT. MAN A LITTLE SALT PORK. BUT THERE IS ALSO STUFF LIKE COD TONGUES. AND AIR BLADDERS. RECIPES FOR THOSE. DELIGHTFUL. I DID LOOK UP THE HYMN THAT GRAVES HAD QUOTED AND FOUND, A FOLK SONG, I FOUND, WONDERFUL VERSIONS OF IT. LET ALL THE FINE FISHES THAT SWIM IN THE SEA, THE SALMON AND THE COD AND THE LING BOW DOWN THE HEAD AND BEND THE KNEE TO FIND FRESH HERRING OUR KING. HOW DELIGHTFUL TO HAVE A KING THAT IS A HERRING. AND, AND IF YOU HAVE BEEN EATING SALT FISH OUT OF A BARREL FOR SIX MONTHS I THINK IT PRO DOES FEEL AND TASTE LIKE FOOD FOR ROYALTY. BUT THE OTHER THING THAT IS INTERESTING ABOUT THE HYMN IS THIS LINE, THE TWO LINES FOR HAVE TEMPTED SUMMER IN AT THE TAIL OF FINE FRESH HERRING. THE SUMMER PEOPLE WHO HAVE THE POWER ONCE THEY GET THE HERRING TO MAKE THE SEASONS TURN. SO IMPORTANT IS THAT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FIS AND THE FISH. SO, TUNA MAY BE THE CHICKEN OF THE SEA. BUT HERRING ARE THE KING. YOU ALL KNOW SOME FOOD TRADITIONS AROUND HERRING, SCANDINAVIANS EAT PICKLED HERRING, BUY IT AT SAF IN GERMANY, ROLLMOPS. THE DUTCH HAVE A HERRING THEY LIKE TO EAT IT RAW, CHASED WITH A RAW ONION AND A BEER. I LOVE AND HAVE GREAT EMPATHY FOR THIS, CHILD, THIS POOR LITTLE GIRL THINKING OH, MY GOD, THIS IS MY FATE. WHAT AM I? # AND HERE IS SICILY, SICILIAN PASTA DISHES NOT UNCOMMON TO SEE A RECIPE FOR LINGUINE WITH SARDINES, PINE NUTS, RAISINS, VERY SIMPLE AND DELICIOUS. MOST OF US WOULD KNOW SARDINES ARE HERRING IN THIS FORM. A TIN CAN. WITH A, EASY POP TOP. CHEAP. HEALTHY. DELICIOUS. CANNING SARDINES BEGAN WITH NAPOLEON WHO IN ORDER TO SUPPORT HIS MILITARY AMBITIONS WANTED TO FIND A WAY TO PRESERVE FISH FOR HIS SOLDIERS AND — AND -BING FOSTER, SPONSOR A CONTEST WITH A CASH AWARD SO THAT THE PERSON WHO FIGURED OUT HOW TO PRESERVE THE HERRING RAN AWAY WITH THE — BAG OF CASH. AND SO, THAT ACTUALLY, THE CANNING OF SARDINES FIRST IN GLASS JARS AND THEN IN TIN CANS DID BEGIN WITH NAPOLEONS COMPETITION. SADLY, MOST HERRING NOW IN OUR REGION IS GOING FOR BAIT FOR LOBSTER TRADE. AS THE WATERS WARM, IN SOU NEW ENGLAND, THE LOBSTERS ARE MOVING NORTH FOR THE COLD IN CANADA. WE ARE HAVING A GOLD RUSH OF LOBSTERS AND SO, THE BAIT IS BEING SOLD TO THE LOBSTER INDUSTRY, AND THE HERRING ARE BEING SOLD FOR BAIT TO THE LOBSTERREN DISTREE. STER INDUSTRY.FOR ME, SAD TO DOH A NEW FRESH US RESILIENT FOOD FISH. HOWEVER, YOU KNOW THAT ECONOMY DRIVES MANY OF THE MARKETS THIS WORLD. AND NOT WHAT’S GOOD FOR COMMUNITY LIFE. ANYWAY, IF YOU BUY THIS BRAND, BRUNSWICK SARDINES THERE IS A VERY GOOD CHANCE THE SAR WERE HERRING THAT WERE HARVESTED IN A WEIR ON MANAN ISLAND. SO BUY BRUNSWICK SARDINES. EVERY YEAR, THE WEIRS ARE BEING STEAKS ON THE BEACHES SHARPENED, TIED TOGETHER IN RAFTS, CARR TO THE WEIRS. WE SEE BIRCH POLES FOR THE SAPLINGS . WE SEE THE FLOATING RAFTS CALLED DRIVERS THAT CARRY THE PILE DRIVER OUT TO DRIVE THE STAKES INTO THE WEIR. THEY CARRY THEIR OWN LITTLE DIESEL GENERATOR. THIS IS AN AIM J OF THE SEINING OF THE INTRUDER WEIR. YOU CAN SEE HOW MANY BOATS HAVE TO GO IN THERE AND THE THIS IS THE CARRI THAT IS GOING THROUGH THE IT IS A VERY TIGHT FIT. AND THEN THERE IS THE S AND YOU HAVE A SCIFF IN THERE, ALL THE WHITE IN THE WATER IS THE FISH SCALES JUST BEING THROWN AWAY. BUT, AN IMPORTANT DETAIL IS, THAT THEY USED TO HARVEST ALL OF THOSE SCALES. THERE IS A — THERE IS A FACEBOOK GROUP CALLED GRAND MANAN WEIRS MAINTAINED BY GRAND MANAN FISHERMEN. THEY HAVE BEEN THROWING UP OLD PICTURES THIS PICTURE POSTED THIS SUMMER OF SOMEBODY’S DAD. GATHERING THE SCALES FROM A FISHING BOAT. IN 1964. THEY WOULD BE GATHERED IN THE WONDERFUL WOVEN ASH BASKETS MADE BY THE PASSAMAQUODDY, AND THEN THEY WOULD BE SOLD TO A C CALLED MERLE PEARL AND THEY WERE USED FOR FINGERNAIL POLISH, EYESHADOW, LIPSTICK, AND GLITTERY CAR PAINT. SO, NEXT TIME YOU PUT ON EYE SHAD DEAND NAIL POLISH, THANK A HERRING. NOW THOSE ARE ALL MADE FROM SYNTHETICS. OTHER LOST KNOWLEDGES OF COURSE, SOME LANGUAGE THAT GOES AS FISHING PRACTICES CHANGE. BUT I AM HAPPY TO REPORT THAT THE, THE WORD HOGSHEAD IS VERY MUCH IN PLAY AS THE MEASURE FOR — FOR THE CATCH OF HERRING. AND A HOGSHEAD HAS BEEN TERMED SINCE 1423, ORIGINALLY, FOR MEASURING WHISKEY. OF COURSE THESE WEIRS ARE VERY THIS IS WHAT IT LOOKS LIKE AFTER A STORM. WHEN A STORM IS APPROACHING, THE FISHERMEN HAVE TO GO OUT AND TAKE THE TWINE OFF OF A EVEN IF IT IS THE PEAK OF THE FISHING SEASON. AS THEY DID AS DORIAN WAS JUST HEADING TO NOVA OTHER THREATS NOW OF COURSE, CLIMATE CHANGE. SO WILL THERE BE HERRING IN THE FUTURE? NOBODY KNOWS, SAYS ANDY PERSHING AT GULF OF MAINE RESEARCH THERE MAY BE. THERE WILL BE HERRING IN THE SE AND THERE MAY BE NEW FISHING TECHNIQUES TO CATCH THEM. THIS SHOWS THE CATCH — THE — ILLUSTRATION ON THE MAP SHOWS THAT IT IS ASTONISHING CATCH IN THE YEAR 1919. AND THEN YOU CAN SEE, THESE DECLINES. SO WHAT HAPPENED IN 2012? ONLY 500 TONS? 2012 WAS A YEAR OF AN OCEAN HEAT THERE WERE NO, VIRTUALLY CALANUS FINMARCHICUS IN THE BAY OF FUNDY. NO COPEPODS, NO HERRING. WH WHO KNOWS? THEY THINK MAYBE THEY WANT TO DEEPER COLDER WATT -R BECAUSE THE WATERS WERE SO WARM. SO THERE IS A RESEARCHER, GENETICIST, AT THE UNIVERSITY, LEIF ANDERSON, AT UPSSALA HE IS WORKING AND INTERESTED ON THE WONDERFUL ADAPTIVE ABILITIES OF THE FISH AND THINKING IF WE COULD STUDY THE MECHANISMS BY WHICH THIS FISH IS SO ADAPTIVE, MAYBE WE CAN LEARN SOMETHING IN ADVANCE OF THIS CHANGE. THAT WILL HELP US TO PROTECT THIS SPECIES AND LEARN SOMETHING HELPFUL TO OURSELVES BECAUSE ACTUALLY THE MAJORITY OF THE GENES IN HERRING ARE, IN US AS WELL. BUT CLIMATE CHANGE IS CER A THREAT. BUT IT HASN’T RUINED THIS FISHERY YET. SO I WANT TO TACK YOU ON A JOURNEY TO SEIN A WEIR SO YOU CAN HAVE AN EXPERIENCE. IT IS AN ASTONISHING EXPERIENCE. THIS IS THE PATS COVE WEIR. I GOT A CALL FROM MY PHOTOGRAPHER FRIEND PETER CUNNINGHAM PATS COVE IS FULL OF HER YOU WANT TO GO? YES. SO WE WENT OUT. THESE ARE HIS PICTURES. AGAIN, YOU KNOW, BEAUTIFUL WORK. SO THIS IS RUSSELL INGILLS, THE LEFT. AND HIS FATHER, 90 YEARS OLD . HE IS THE ONE WHO SHARPENED THE STAKES ON THE HE DIDN’T HAVE THE STRENGTH TO START THE CHAIN SAW. HE HAD HIS GRANDSON START CHAIN SAW AND HE SHARPENED THEM ALL. RUSSELL, WAS, RELUCTANT TO BUILD THE WEIR. THIS WAS IN 2018. HE SAID WE HAVE HAD SO MANY BAD YOU KNOW. AND JUNIOR SAID, WE’RE BUILDING IT. FATHER SPOKE AND THEY DID. AND THE MEN CONTINUED THEY ARE ALMOST ALL MEN. I KNOW ONE WOMAN WORKING WITH HER HUSBAND ON A WEIR. THE MEN WHO DO THIS DO IT OUT OF A LOVE FOR THIS TRADITION. A LOVE FOR THE LABEL, THE LABOR, AN A SENSE OF THE DIGNITY OF THIS WORK. YOU SEE THE MEN ALL WORKING TOGETHER IN THIS ORCHESTRATED IT’S HIGHLY COLLABORATIVE. IT CAN BE VERY GENTLE. YOU KNOW, I, I COULD HEAR RUSSELL SAY SOMETHING LIKE, JUST EASE IT AROUND THERE, BOYS. THAT’S, THAT’S REALLY GOING BE HARD ON THEIR HAND. SO IT IS NOT A KIND OF — MACHO, IS A VERY DIFFERENT COOPERATIVE GENTLE MASCULINITY THAT INVOLVES AN ENORMOUS AMOUNT OF STREN IT IS QUITE FASCINATING TO WATCH HERE IS THE LITTLE 7-YEAR-OLD. 9-YEAR-OLD IN HER 70s, TRANSFIXED BY HERRING AND FINDING THIS KIND OF RES SUIT HER MUCH BETTER THAN SITTING IN THE LIBRARY. WHAT THEY’RE DOING IS THEY’RE DROPPING A SEIN NET AROUND, THEY’RE, BROUGHT A NEW NET IN THAT HAS LEAD RINGS ON IT. THERE IS A DIVER AT THE BOTTOM. MAKING SURE THAT THAT KNELT GOES AROUND THE FISH. AND NOT WITH THE FISH, AND IN THE WRONG PLACE. ONCE THEY GET THAT NET ALL AROUND THE WEIR THEY WILL GATHER IT UP WITH THE LEAD RINGS AND BEGIN TO RAY IT UP. HERE IS RUSSELL DOING THAT SAME FEELING FOR HERRING. SO WITH HIS FINGER, JUST VIBRATING, FEELING THE VIBRATION ON THE LINE HE WILL EST MANY HOGSHEAD OF HERRING ARE THAT WEIR. KIND OF SKILL, YOU KNOW, THAT COMES FROM EXPERIENCE, IT COMES GENERATION TO GENERATION TO GE OF COURSE, THEY HAVE ALL OF THE SOPHISTICATED TECHNOLOGY, SONAR, WH THERE IS A CERTAIN RESPECT FOR SOME OF THESE SIMPLE TECHNOLOGIES. THE HAND AND ALIGN, A WEIGHTED LINE THAT WORK. SO DUSK IS COMING ON. WE ARE WATCHING THE NET GO AROUND. WE ARE WAITING FOR THE HERRING CARRIER TO COME, WHICH HAS TO COME FROM SEVERAL HOURS AWAY. WHEN IT ARRIVES IT ENTERS THE WEIR THROUGH THAT GATE. IT IS A VERY TRICKY BUSINESS. SOMETIMES ONE OF THE LITTLE ASK IFS WILL JUST KIND OF KISS THE BOW OF THAT CARRIER AND STEER IT SO IT DOESN’T HURT THE — THE NETS AS IT COMES INTO THE WEIR. THE NET ARE DRAWN UP, THERE IS NO WIN OF, NO BLOCK AND TACKLE, NO POWER UNIT ON THIS LITTLE SC THIS IS ALL HAULING. HAULING ASS AS WE SAY. THIS IS RUSSELL’S SON CHRIS. WE HAVE THREE GENERATIONS OF THE FAMILY, HARVESTING THE FISH. CHRIS WAS THE DIVER WHO SET THE SEIN NET DOWN BELOW AND THE DIVER WHEN THEY BEGAN HAULING AND THEY SAW THAT THERE WERE SOME HOLES IN THE NET. HE DOVE DOWN. WITH HIS SHUTTLE AND TWINE AND STITCHED THE NETS BECOME BACK TG MANY SKILLS. HERE IS A AGAIN THE BEAUTIFUL INTENSITY. SLIGHTLY BETTER PHOTOGRAPH THAN MINE. AS THESE FISH COME TO THE SURFACE. AND THE CATCH TURNS OUT TO BE EACH BIGGER THAN WAS EXPEC BY NOW, NIGHT HAS FALLEN, IT IS A MOONLESS NIGHT. NOBODY REALLY NOTICED IT IS PEOPLE ARE WORKING. I’M TAKING NOTES. PETER IS JUMPING AROUND TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS. SO, THE LITTLE SCHIFF IS UP AGAINST THE CARRIER, FISH PUMPED INTO THE HOLD OF THE CARRIER. SHE IS FULL TO THE MAX. AS THEY SAY. AND RUSSELL SAYS HE IS SURPRISED AT SUCH A BIG HE SAYS IT IS A GIFT. IT IS A HE SAID IT TWICE. AND I KNOW HE MEANT, IT WAS A GIFT FOR HIS FATHER WHO WAS AT 90 WAS THE ONE WHO SAID WE WILL BUILD THE WEIR. AND I ALSO THINK, BECAUSE HE IS A PIOUS MAN, THAT IT IS A FROM GOD. WELL, WE NEEDED TO HAVE A SECOND CARRIER BECAUSE THERE WERE MANY FISH IT WAS GOING TO MAKE MANY HOURS FOR THE CARRIER TO AND SO, WE HAD TO SIT AND WAIT. AND SO THIS IS THE CARRIER NOW, ABSOLUTELY FULL AND RIDING VERY, VERY LOW IN THE A SIGN OF BOUNTY, JOY FOR FISHING PEOPLE. CERTAINLY. IT’S THE LAST NIGHT OF SUMMER ON THIS DARK, DARK NIGHT. AND IT IS ABOUT TO HEAD BACK TO THESE ARE GOING TO BE TAKEN TO THE MAINLAND FOR SARDINES AND IT TURNS OUT IT WILL BE MIDNIGHT BEFORE THE OTHER CARRIER WILL ARRIVE. SO, THE SKIPPER OF THE CARRIER SAYS I WILL STICK AROUND AND GIVE YOU GUYS SOME LIGHT. UNTIL HE GETS HERE. AND RUSSELL SAYS WE DON’T NEED LIGHT. SO, THE CARRIER GOES MOVING OFF OUT TO SEA. AND THERE WE ALL SIT, SOME OF THE MEN, HAVE A SMOKE, WE ARE JUST SITTING BOBBING IN THE WATER. BOBBING IN THE WATER. THE SEALS ARE AROUND, STEALING HERRING, MAKING HUGE MUSCULAR SPLASHES, THERE ARE BIOLUMINESCENT ORGANISMS IN THE WATER, RUSSELL CALLS FIRE WAT A BEAUTIFUL, MAGIC MOMENT. WELL, BEAUTIFUL AND MAGICAL FOR AN HOUR. FOR PETER AND ME. AND THEN, RUSSELL SAID, YOU KNOW I COULD RUN YOU GUYS TO SHORE IF YOU WOULD LOOK TO GO HOME. WE SAID OKAY. SO, HE DID. AND, THIS IS, HE RUNS US TO THE SHORE, ON THE BOAT AND HERE WE ARE ON THE ROCKY SHORE, WE CAN’T FIND THE PATH BACK TO THE ROAD LIKE THE PASSAGE FROM ONE WORLD TO ANOTHER. BEDAZZLED . HE IS SHINING LIGHT BACK AT US TRYING TO SHOW US WHERE TO GO. IT IS A BEAUTIFUL EXPERIENCE. SO, WHAT’S THE CONDITION OF THE SEAL COVE, THE CENTER OF THE SMOKING INDUSTRY NOW. IT IS BEDRAGGLED, IT HAS BEEN LEFT TO RUIN. HERE IS THAT BEAUTIFUL SMOKE SHED THIS IS IN BETTER SHAPE THAN MOST OF THEM. THEY’RE FALLING INTO THE GROUND. USED FOR STORAGE. USE FORD PLASTIC TUBING FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF SALMON CAGES AS THEY SAY FOR THE AQU ACULTURE. DESPITE THE FACT THAT HER STAND HAVE BEEN DESIGNATED ON CANADIAN REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES, 54 BUILDINGS, BUILT BETWEEN 1870 AND 1930. AND THEY’RE DESIGNATED FOR BEING EVOCATIVE OF THE WHOLE SMOKED HERRING INDUSTRY IN THE NORTH ATLANT THIS COMMUNITY, SEAL COVE, IMPORTANCE AS CENTER OF THE AND THIS KIND OF IDEA OF A VERNACULAR LANDSCAPE BETWEEN SEA AND THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT. THAT SPEAKS TO AN HISTORICAL PERIOD THAT IS MELTING AWAY. IT IS MY WISH, AND THE WISH OF, OF A GROUP OF US ON THE ISLAND WHO HAVE BEEN MEETING FOR A FEW YEARS TO TRY TO HAVE A HERRING ERA MUSEUM. AS THEY HAVE IN ICELAND. BEAUTIFUL HERRING ERA MUSEUM. ONE IN SCOTLAND AS WELL. TO CELEBRATE THE HER WE ARE SEEING THINGS LOST TO AND IF THESE WEIRS STOP FOR THIS TO BE LOST TO MEMORY. SEEMS TO ME WOULD BE A HEARTBREAKING LOSS. SO, WHETHER WE CAN PULL THAT OFF OR NOT. WE DON’T KNOW. APPARENTLY IT MEANS ABSOLUTEL NOTHING TO HAVE AN HISTORIC DESIGNATION BECAUSE THERE IS NO MONEY ATTACHED TO IT. WELL, I CAN BE SURPRISED BY SARDINES AS A BEAUTIFUL FOOD. AS MY DAUGHTER AND I WERE IN PARIS IN 2015. FINDING A LITTLE BASQUE RESTAURANT THAT SERVED THESE VERY FANCY, ELEGANT, SARDINES IN A CAN WITH MY LA TERROIR POTATOES. KIND OF THR I EAT THEM ANYTIME I SEE THEM ON A RESTAURANT MENU. AND GREAT ADVOCATE FOR TRYING THE FISH, IT IS NUTRITIOUS AND LOW ON THE FOOD CHAIN WHICH MEANS IT DOESN’T ACCUMULATE HEAVY METALS AND TOXINS THAT FISH HIGH ON THE FOOD CHAIN ACCUMULATE. SO I KNOW THAT PEOPLE ARE QUITE SNOBBISH ABOUT SARDINES. BUT THIS IS A MARVELOUS FISH FOR EATING. AND I HIGHLY ENCOURAGE YOU TO BE EXPERIMENTAL. OF COURSE, THE HERRING ARE IMPORTANT IN THE WHOLE FOOD WEB. NOT ONLY TO US, THIS IS IMPORTANT ALWAYS TO REMEMBER, THAT, ALL OF THIS IS CONNECTED. AND THIS WHOLE COMMUNITY THAT I AM TALKING ABOUT IS NOT ONLY THE COMMUNITY OF THE PEOPLEN THE FISH AND THE COMMUNITY OF ALL OF THE LIFE THAT LIVES IN THIS RICH, RICH, RICH PART OF THE ATLANTIC. THE HERRING WEIRS ARE NOT GONE. THERE ARE NINE IN 2018. I THINK 10 IN 2019. IT WAS A GOOD HAUL IN 2018. BUT THERE CERTAINLY AS A METHOD THEY’RE IN DANGER. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT IN CANADA, JUST LAST YEAR, PASSED LEGISLATION TO TRY TO PROTECT ENSURE FISHERIES AS TRADITIONAL FISHERIES WHICH IN CANADA IT IS OWNER OPERATED. NOT MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION THERE IS A BIG DIFFERENCE IN TERMS OF SUSTAINING COMMUNITIES, ON BOTH THE EAST AND WEST COASTS OF CANADA. BASED UPON WHO IS MANAGING THE OF COURSE, INCREASINGL SELLING OF THE FISH. AND THE PROCESSING OF THE FISH. IS HAPPENING IN LARGE CORPORATE HOMES, NOT IN THESE MULTIBEAUTIFUL, MULTIFAMILY SHARED FISHERIES. THIS IS A WEIR CALLED THE MUMPS. JUST SHOW YOU A FEW PICTURES OF THE BEAUTIFUL WIRES, FROM 2018. BRADFORD’S COVE HAS AN EXTRA POUND ON IT. WHAT THE THIS IS A SUPER-WEI IF THEY GET HERRING THEY SCOOT THEM OVER INTO THE POUND, BLOCK IT OFF. AND WAIT TILL THEY GET THE OTHER BUNT OF THE WEIR FILLED AND THEY CAN MAKE A KILLING. $600 A HOGSHEAD FOR HERRING RIGHT NOW FOR BAIT. IF YOU GOT 100 HOGSHEAD IN ONE DAY. YOU MADE $60,000. THAT’S PRETTY GOOD. THERE IS PAT’S COVE WHICH WE HAVE SEEN. WELL, I THINK THERE IS NO WAY TO CELEBRATE A TRA THAN WITH A SONG. SO, I WAS THRILLED TO FIND THIS SONG, PERFORMED BY THE BRITISH GROUP, FOLLY BRIDGE. CELEBRATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PEOPLE AND HERRING. SO, LET’S — HAVE A LISTEN.>>THAT’S NOT WHAT THEY CALLED THAT’S WHAT YOU DID LAST TIME. ♪ THE HERRING IS THE KING OF THE THE HERRING IS THE FISH FOR ME THE HERRING IS THE KING OF THE SEA SING ALL DAY WHAT WILL THEY DO WITH ME THEY’LL MAKE IT INTO A LOAF OF BREAD THEY’LL MAKE IT INTO A LOAF OF AND ALL SORTS OF THE HERRING IS THE KING OF THE SEA THE HERRING IS THE FISH FOR ME THE HERRING IS THE KING OF THE SEA SING ALONG ALL DAY ♪ ♪ . ♪ WHAT WILL THEY DO WITH THE HERRING EYES, MAKE THEM INTO PUDDINGS AND PIES MAKE THEM INTO PUDDINGS AND PIES ALL SORTS OF THINGS HERRING EYES AND PUDDINGS AND PI AND ALL SORTS OF THINGS THE HERRING IS THE KING OF THE THE HERRING IS THE FISH FOR ME THE HERRING IS THE KING OF THE SEA SING ALL DAY ♪ ♪ WHAT WILL THEY DO WITH THE HERRING FIN MAKE THEM INTO NEEDLES AND PINS AND ALL SORTS OF THINGS HERRING FINS AND NEEDLES AND PINS HERRING EYES AND PUDDING AND HERRING HEADS AND ALL SORTS OF THE HERRING IS THE KING OF THE THE HERRING IS THE FISH FOR ME THE HERRING IS THE KING OF THE SEA SING ALL DAY WHAT WILL THEY DO WITH MY HERRINGS BACK THEY’LL MAKE IT INTO A ALL OF THINGS HERRINGS BACK A HERRINGS FIN NEEDLES AND PINS HERRING EYES AND ALL SORTS OF A HERRING IS THE KING OF SEA THE HERRING IS THE FISH FOR ME THE HERRING IS THE KING OF THE SEA SING ALL DAY NOW WHAT WILL THEY DO WITH MY HERRINGS GILLS THEY’LL MAKE THEM INTO WINDOWS SOILS THEY’LL MAKE THEM INTO WINDOWS SOILS AND ALL SORTS OF THINGS THE HERRINGS BACK HERRINGS FINS NEEDLES AND PINS HERRINGS HEAD AND LOAFS OF BREAD AND ALL SORTS OF THINGS THE HERRING IS THE KING OF THE THE HERRING IS THE FISH FOR ME THE HERRING IS THE KING OF THE SEA SING ALL DAY NOW WHAT WILL THEY DO WITH MY HERRINGS TAIL THEY’LL MAKE IT INTO A BOTTLE OF MAKE IT INTO A BOTTLE OF ALE AND ALL SORTS OF THINGS HERRINGS A HERRINGS KILL A WINDOW SILL HERRINGS FINS NEEDLES AND PINS A HERRING’S EYES PUDDLES AND PIE HERRINGS LOAFS OF BREAD A HERRING IS A KING OF THE SEA HERRINGS KING OF THE SEA SING ALL DAY>>WELL I WANT TO THANK YOU ALL I HOPE THE HERRING HAS BEEN RAISED IN YOUR ESTEEM A BIT AND SOME OF THESE TRADITIONS ARE NOW THINGS THAT YOU MIGHT CONSIDER AS BEING WORTHY FOR US TO — TO CHERISH, PROTECT AND THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR COMING.>>MARVELOUS PLEASE JOIN US TOMORROW, NEXT THURSDAY, WHERE WE WILL HAVE A TALK ABOUT THE NAVAJO THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR COMING.

4 thoughts on “Animalities: Hunting for Herring

  1. Absolutely Amazing, I really enjoyed it!, See this New Album 'Monish Jasbird – Death Blow', channel link www.youtube.com/channel/UCv_x5rlxirO-WKjLIyk6okQ?sub_confirmation=1 , you can try 🙂

  2. ~~~ trade with dogderland economy 2nd danasty egyptian trade pearl pwd from Indonesia and herring from doggerland, salt from hymlaians, teas from the indias~~~

  3. ~~~ we paid Thebes runaway colonists and there ECONOMY thrived off gold from Egypt and trade with Mongol Races~~~

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